Pharmacology integrates an understanding of the:a. transformation of plants and living organisms into effective medications
b. the synthesis of drugs in pharmaceutical laboratories
c. treatment of disease through naturally occurring substances
d. action, movement, and use of drugs in living organism


Answer 1


d. action, movement, and use of drugs in living organism


Pharmacology involves action, movement and research in use of drugs in living systems. Also regards the effects of substances like caffeine, antibiotics. The sciences studies the process that occur as they come to the body, since any drug will change the internal chemical balances. Bodies will respond. The changes will happen, and thus we develop better drugs

Main applications include:

Searching or discovery of better medicines to fight diseases, preferably reducing side effects. Studying differences among the experiences led by different target populations with the same drugs and other variables.

Pharmacology lies at the heart of biomedical science, linking together chemistry, physiology and pathology. Pharmacologists work closely with a wide variety of other disciplines that make up modern biomedical science, including neuroscience, molecular and cell biology, immunology and cancer biology.

Pharmacological knowledge improves the lives of millions of people across the world. It maximises their benefit and minimises risk and harm

As new diseases emerge, and older medicines - like antibiotics - no longer work as well, the contribution of pharmacology to finding better and safer medicines becomes all the more vital.

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c. inner cell mass


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The nursing staff on the antepartal unit has leuprolide acetate and medroxyprogesterone acetate in the pharmacy for their clients. The nursing staff observed that the vials are similar in size and shape and could be confused. In order to promote client safety, the nursing staff should take what actions?


The following actions should be taken by the Nursing staff inorder to promote client's safety on leuprolide acetate and medroxyprogesterone acetate administration;

__ petition the pharmacy to relocate one drug away form the other product to prevent the likelihood of picking a wrong due to the resemblance of the vials.

__ Communicate concerns,measures to remediate and final decisions to all staffs inorder to bring to their awareness the issues regarding the drugs.

__ Collaborate with pharmacy staff to develop a location that works well for both groups.

the client has been prescribed a 4 gram bolus of magnesium sulfate to run over 20 minutes. it arrives from the pharmacy diluted in 250 ml of normal saline. what rate does the nurse set the iv pump to run the bolus? (enter a whole number, round as needed. )


The nurse needs to set the IV pump to provide 4 grams of magnesium sulfate over a 20-minute period to run the bolus.

Since the bolus comes diluted in 250 mL of normal saline, the nurse needs to calculate the rate at which the bolus will be delivered. To do this, the nurse needs to divide the amount of magnesium sulfate (4 grams) by the time it should take to deliver the bolus (20 minutes). This gives a rate of 0.2 grams per minute.

However, since IV pumps deliver in milliliters per hour, the nurse needs to convert this rate to mL/hr. To do this, the nurse multiplies 0.2 grams/minute by 60 minutes/hour, giving a rate of 12 mL/hour. Therefore, the nurse should set the IV pump to 12 mL/hour to provide the 4-gram magnesium sulfate bolus over 20 minutes.

know more about bolus here


The IV pump rate for a 4 gram bolus of magnesium sulfate to run over 20 minutes with a total volume of 250 mL should be set at 750 mL/hr.

To calculate the IV pump rate for a magnesium sulfate bolus of 4 grams to be administered over 20 minutes, we need to know the total volume of the IV fluid which is 250 mL.

Since the entire 250 mL should be administered in 20 minutes, we first convert minutes to hours because infusion pumps are calibrated in mL per hour. Thus, 20 minutes is ⅓ of an hour.

To find the infusion rate in mL/hour, we use the formula:

  • Infusion rate (mL/hr) = Total volume (mL) / Time (hr)
  • Infusion rate = 250 mL / (⅓ hr)
  • Infusion rate = 250 mL / 0.333hr
  • Infusion rate = 750 mL/hr

Therefore, the nurse should set the IV pump to run at a rate of 750 mL/hr to administer a 4 gram bolus of magnesium sulfate diluted in 250 mL of normal saline over 20 minutes.

The antidepressant fluoxetine (or Prozac) has a half-life of about days. What percentage of a dose remains in the body after one day?


The complete question is :

The antidepressant fluoxetine (or Prozac) has a half-life of about 3 days. What

percentage of a dose remains in the body after one day

Answer: 79.4 per cent.


Half life of a substance can be defined as the amount of time taken to degrade it half or it can be defined as the time which is required by the substance to become half of its original amount.

Here we need to find the half life of a medicine fluoxetine.

The equation which can be written for the question is :P(t) which will provide the information about the amount of medicine left in the body after one day or time (t)

Since the half-life is 3 days, P(t) = 2−t/3.

Then P(1) = 2−1/3 ≈ 0.794 =  0.794*100=79.4%  is the amount of substance left in the body after one day.

Assume that an initial dose of 100 mg will produce a particular drug effect. After tolerance, which dose level would most likely produce an equivalent response?



Tolerance means that due to repititve use of the drug, initial dose is unable to prpduce the same effect beacuse the receptors has been desensitized.

If An initial dose is 100 mg then dose higher than this which may be 2 or 3 times more potent may reverse this tolerance of the drug and it may then produce similar effects at a higher dose.


Tolerance is said to be the decreased response by the drug because of the continuous exposure to the drug at the receptor molecules. Due to this contionuous exposure the receptors become desensitized.

Tolerance occurs when the person no longer responds to the drug in the way that person initially responded. Tolerance can be reversed by increasing the dose of the drug lets say initial dose was 100 mg. To reverse the tolerance, a dose of 500 mg may be required or even more.

Describe the importance of referred pain in the diagnosis of deep visceral pain and give examples.



The referred pain in deep visceral pain can be diagnosed in the somatic locations. Example: stomach ulcers and heart problems.


Referred pain may be defined as the pain experienced at the location other than the site of origin. The referred pain can be used to diagnose the deep visceral pain as this pain is poorly localized. The damage in the visceral organs may leads to the characteristic pain in the somatic locations of the body.


In case of the heart problems (myocardial ischemia) the pain can be felt at arm, shoulder and left pectoral region.

The case of stomach ulcers includes the pain at the back, in between the scapulae.