A data structure used to bind an authenticated individual to a public key is the definition of ________. digital certificate
internet layer
data link layer


Answer 1


Digital Certificate is the correct answer of this question.


Digital certificates are always for encryption and identification for transmitting public keys.The concept of digital certificate is a data structure used for linking an authenticated person to a public key. It is used to cryptographically attach public key rights to the organization that controls it.

For example:- Verisign, Entrust, etc.

  • An appendix to an electronic document that is used for authentication purposes.
  • A digital certificate's most frequent use is to confirm that an user sending a message is who he or she appears to be, and provide the recipient with the means to encode a response.

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Write a program to calculate how much to tip a waiter person based on the quality of service. The script file should ask for the amount of the check and whether the service was good, fair or poor. If the service was good, the tip should be 20%. If the service was fair, the tip should be 15%. If the service was poor, the tip should be 5%. The program should display the tip and the total of the check including the tip.
Assume there is a machine with the IP address with netmask /23, and with a parent NW whose netmask is For each answer, do not include any spaces, give full IP addresses/netmasks where these are requested, give the "/" as part of the answer for slash notation.

Write a program that takes user input describing a playing card in the following short-hand notation:А Ace
2... 10 Card values
J Jack
Q Queen
K King
D Diamonds
H Hearts
S Spades
C Clubs

Your program should print the full description of the card. For example, Enter the card notation: QS Queen of Spades
Implement a class Card whose constructor takes the card notation string and whose getDescription method returns a description of the card. If the notation string is not in the correct format, the getDescription method should return the string "Unknown".



In python Language:

cardNotation = raw_input("Enter card notation: ")


# Create a dict for values


cardColors = {"D": "Diamonds",

             "H": "Hearts",

             "S": "Spades",

             "C": "Clubs"}


cardNumberValues = {"A": "Ace",

                   "J": "Jack",

                   "Q": "Queen",

                   "K": "King",

                   "2": "Two",

                   "3": "Three",

                   "4": "Four",

                   "5": "Five",

                   "6": "Six",

                   "7": "Seven",

                   "8": "Eight",

                   "9": "Nine",

                   "10": "Ten"}


# Handle cases when 10 comes in input

if len(cardNotation) == 3:


   number = cardNotation[:2]

   color = cardNotation[2:]

   print cardNumberValues.get(number) + " of " + cardColors.get(color)


elif len(cardNotation) == 2:


   number = cardNotation[:1]

   color = cardNotation[1:]

   print cardNumberValues.get(number) + " of " + cardColors.get(color)



   print "INVALID VALUE"

What types of messages flow across an SDN controller’s northbound and southbound APIs? Who is the recipient of these messages sent from the controller across the southbound interface, and who sends messages to the controller across the northbound interface?


The types of messages which flow across an SDN controller northbound and southbound APIs are:

  • Messages that helps to develop flow tables
  • Messages that helps to interact between the controller and network control applications
  • Messages which help for the up-to-date view of the network's state, etc.

The recipient of these messages sent from the controller across the southbound interface, and who sends messages to the controller across the northbound interface are:

  • Controlled devices are the recipient
  • Network control applications send the messages

What is Communication?

This refers to the exchange of information between different people or computers using a medium which also gives feedback.

Read more about communication here:

Answer and Explanation:

Messages flow across an SDN controller's:  

Northbound APIs:  

• Messages which help in read/write state of the network and developing flow tables within the  

state management layer.  

• Notifications for the state-change events.  

• The interaction between the controller and network control applications is done through the  

northbound interface.  

• Network control applications send messages to the controller.  

Southbound APIs:  

• Messages which help for the up-to-date view of the network's state like message for the  

attached link has gone up or down, new devices are joined the network, or indications of the  

device is up or down.  

• Controller's southbound interface is the communication among the controller and the controlled  

devices. Controlled devices are the recipients of the messages sent form the controller.  

)when you classify data into groups and subgroups you are using a(n) ____ order?A. Circular

B. Hierarchical

C. Linear

D. Group



Explanation: Hierarchical order classifies the distribution of the data into the groups and their subgroups .The division of these groups and subgroups appear in the structure of pyramid generally.

The classification done in the hierarchical order is based on the authority on each level e.g.-the level with high authority is situated at higher level and below it, followed by its subgroup components.So, the correct option is option(B).

You are experiencing issues when trying to transfer files between two computers using FTP. What could be the potential cause(s) of the issue


A potential cause of this issue with FTP is that the server is not able to resolve the client IP address.

What is FTP?

FTP is an acronym for file transfer protocol and it can be defined as a type of server that is designed and developed to store and provide files for download and sharing between two or more users on a computer system.

In this scenario, the user is most likely experiencing issues when trying to transfer files through the file transfer protocol (FTP) because the server is not able to resolve the client IP address, which is the address of the recipient of the file.

Read more on FTP here: brainly.com/question/20602197

Write a Python function fun3(e) to update a list of numbers e such that the first and last elements have been exchanged. The function needs to also return multiplication of elements of e. You should assume that the list e has at least 2 elements.Example:

>>>lst = [4, 1, 2, -1]





Here is code in Python:

#function to swap first and last element of the list

#and calculate product of all elements of list

def fun3(e):

   product = 1

   temp = e[0]

   e[0] = e[-1]

   e[-1] = temp

   for a in e:

       product *= a

   return product

#create a list

inp_lst = [4, 1, 2, -1]

#call the fun3() with parameter inp_lst

print("product of all elements of list is: ",fun3(inp_lst))

#print the list after swapping

print("list after swapping first and last element: ",inp_lst)


Create a list "inp_lst" and initialize it with [4,1,2,-1]. In the function fun3() pass a list parameter "e". create a variable "product" to calculate the product of all elements.Also create a temporary variable to swap the first and last element of the list.


product of all elements of list is:  -8                                                                                        

list after swaping first and last element:  [-1, 1, 2, 4]

Write a program that first reads in the name of an input file and then reads the input file using the file.readlines() method. The input file contains an unsorted list of number of seasons followed by the corresponding TV show. Your program should put the contents of the input file into a dictionary where the number of seasons are the keys, and a list of TV shows are the values (since multiple shows could have the same number of seasons).



def readFile(filename):

   dict = {}

   with open(filename, 'r') as infile:

       lines = infile.readlines()

       for index in range(0, len(lines) - 1, 2):

           if lines[index].strip()=='':continue

           count = int(lines[index].strip())

           name = lines[index + 1].strip()

           if count in dict.keys():

               name_list = dict.get(count)




               dict[count] = [name]


   return dict

def output_keys(dict, filename):

   with open(filename,'w+') as outfile:

       for key in sorted(dict.keys()):

           outfile.write('{}: {}\n'.format(key,';'.join(dict.get(key))))

           print('{}: {}\n'.format(key,';'.join(dict.get(key))))

def output_titles(dict, filename):

   titles = []

   for title in dict.values():


   with open(filename,'w+') as outfile:

       for title in sorted(titles):



def main():

   filename = input('Enter input file name: ')

   dict = readFile(filename)

   if dict is None:

       print('Error: Invalid file name provided: {}'.format(filename))



   output_filename_1 ='output_keys.txt'

   output_filename_2 ='output_titles.txt'