Results from multiple experiments suggest that the ActA protein of Listeria, an integral membrane protein expressed on the cell surface, is the only bacterial protein that is required for the movement of the bacterium within its host cell. Which combination of the following observations shows that ActA is both, necessary and sufficient for bacterial movement?Please note: E. Coli is not an intracellular bacterium - it does not normally move inside the cytosol, and it does not express ActA.
I. ActA binds to the Arp2/3 complex
II. E. Coli in which ActA is expressed moves in host cell cytosol
III. Listeria lacking the ActA gene fail to move inside the host cell cytosol.
IV. ActA has 3 transmembrane domains
V. Arp2/3, when activated, nucleates a branched actin network
A. I and II
B. II and III
C. I and III
D. III and IV
E. I and V
The correct answer is option B. "II and III".
In order to prove that ActA protein of Listeria is necessary and sufficient for bacterial movement within its host cell a series of results in transformed Listeria and transformed E. Coli must be obtained. First, if Listeria lacking the ActA gene fail to move inside the host cell cytosol it will prove that ActA is necessary for bacterial movement. Second, a transformed E. Coli that expresses ActA should be able to move in host cell cytosol. Wild type E. Coli does not expresses ActA, if ActA alone makes E. Coli able to move in host cell cytosol it will prove that ActA is sufficient for bacterial movement.
Which kingdom(s) include organisms that are autotrophic or heterotrophic?
I hope this will help you:)
Autotrophic organisms are found in kingdom planted
Heterotrophic organisms are found in kingdom animalia
Kingdom monerans has some organisms like Cyanobacteria that can carry out photosynthesis so they are autotrophswhile the other main category of monerans is not capable of photosynthesis so are heterotrophs so this kingdom includes both o gains s
Kingdom protist are heterotrophs and autotrophs because some can prepare food while others cannot
Kingdom fungi has some organisms that can carry out photosynthesis like algae
while other are heterotrophs
de kingdoms where de aiutotrophs nd heterophic belong is known to be bacteria..there is also kingdoms where in dey r also autotrhoic nd dis is plantae kingdom also dere r kingdom there r only hetetrpohs nd these r animalia nd fungai
A plant that produces wrinkled, green seeds was mated to a plant that produces phenotypically round, yellow seeds. In the F1 generation, half of the plants produced round, yellow seeds and the other half produced round, green seeds. The round, yellow F1 seeds were planted and those plants were allowed to self-fertilize. In the F2 generation what fraction of the seeds will be genotypically identical to the plants of the parental generation?A. 3/16 B. 1/16 C. 1/4 D. 9/16
The plants with wrinkled, green seeds (rryy) and round, yellow seeds were crossed. Since the progeny did not show a "wrinkled" trait, the parent plant with "round" seeds was homozygous for seed shape and heterozygous for the seed color (RRYy). The genotype of the double recessive parent plant would be "rryy".
A cross between RRYy x rryy gives progeny in following ratio: 1/2 round, yellow seeds( RrYy ): 1/2 round, green seeds (Rryy)
The F2 progeny was obtained by self crossing RrYy plants. In F2 progeny, 3/16 plants (2/16 RRYy and 1/16 rryy) were genotypically identical to the parent plant.
When wind drips its load of sand, it can form a hill called a
Depositions of sand are called sand dunes. Hope this helps! :)
It's called a sand dune
Why is protein synthesis different in prokaryotes and eukaryote
A prokaryotic cell is a cell without a nucleus or membrane bound cell, a Eukaryotic cell has a nucleus and membrane bound cells, a virus is unrelated
hope this helps you :)
Prokaryotic protein synthesis can be fairly fast because one gene can be transcribed and translated simultaneously. Eukaryotic synthesis is slower, but more precious. They can "check" the mRNA before it is translated into protein.
Which of these best orders the rock layers from the youngest to the oldest? (1 point)1) Layer A - Layer B – Layer C – Layer D O2) Layer A - Layer D - Layer B - Layer C O 3) Layer D - Layer C - Layer B - Layer A 4) Layer D - Layer A - Layer C - Layer B