The reason that there are Okazaki fragments during DNA replication is ultimately because:A) Some parts of the chromosome are made of RNA and different polymerases have to be used B) Polymerases can only synthesize in the 5' to 3' direction C) There are only enough dNTP's to support quick replication on one strand, so the other strand lags behind it D) It is necessary to "slow down" one of the strands so that replication does not occur before cells have a chance to grow
B) Polymerases can only synthesize in the 5' to 3' direction
The leading strand's directionality is 3' to 5', so polymerase has no problem with replicating this one. But the lagging strand has the opposite directionality, so the polymerase must work in the opposite direction of the replication fork.In consequence, the replication process undergoes periodic breaks, and the enzymes have to stop and start again while helicase separates both strands, resulting in the polymerization of okazaki fragments.
What is the name of the enzyme that is needed to make glucose from CO2 and hydrogens
(im not sure but i think its this)
Zach Corp. pays commissions to its sales staff at the rate of 3% of net sales. Sales staff are not paid salaries but are given monthly advances of $15,000. Advances are charged to commission expense, and reconciliations against commissions are prepared quarterly. Net sales for the year ended March 31 were $15,000,000. The unadjusted balance in the commissions expense account on March 31 was $400,000. March advances were paid on April 3. In its income statement for the year ended March 31, what amount should Zach report as commission expense?
Based on the information given the amount that Zach should report as commission expense is $450,000.
Using this formula
Commission expense=Percentage of net sales× Net sales
Percentage of net sales=3%
Let plug in the formula
Inconclusion the amount that Zach should report as commission expense is $450,000.
Which level of taxonomy divides its organisms based on DNA sequencesinstead of structural similarities? * A Domain B Kingdom C Genus O D Species
Living organisms have been organized into groups using the Kingdom to Species classification. Kingdom level represents the least specific while Species level represents the most specific. Prior to the discovery of DNA, classification of organisms has been based on structural similarities i.e. organisms that look similar are classified into the same species.
However, the discovery of DNA, put a stop to the erroneous classification of organisms based on structural similarities as there were many exceptions to this. Since members of the same species have a nearly identical DNA, it is used to divide its organisms based on DNA sequences
instead of structural similarities.
The discovery, characterization, and the application of the CRISPR/CAS system has revolutionized the study of genetics and genetic engineering. Please select all correct answers regarding its mechanism of action and application. Multiple correct answers are possible, and partial credit will be given.A. CRISPR sequences in bacteria resemble those from bacteriophage and plamid DNA. B. For reverse genetics studies, CRISPR/CAS can be used to replace wildtype alleles with mutant alleles which can knockout the function of the target genes. C. CRISPR is a DNA sequence in the bacterial chromosome. D. The guide RNA directs CAS to specific DNA sequences. E. The CRISPR/CAS system was discovered in bacteria, and its natural function is the equivalent of an immune system in bacteria for "remembering" viral infections and for attacking viral DNA in future infections.
A. CRISPR sequences in bacteria resemble those from bacteriophage and plasmid DNA. (The CRISPR sequences are derived from previously invading bacteriophages and pladmids.)
B. For reverse genetic studies, CRISPR /CAS can be used to replace wild type alleles with mutant alleles which can knock out the function of target genes. (CAS 9 introduces double strand break (DSB) in the target sequence which is then repaired by non homologous end joining (NHEJ). NHEJ causes deletion, insertion or frame shift mutation leading to knock out of the target genes.)
C. CRISPR is a bacterial sequence in the bacterial chromosome. ( The sequences are derived from bacteriophages that had infected the bacteria defore.)
D. The guide RNA guides CAS to specific DNA sequences. ( The guide RNA directs CAS nuclease to the target sequences for editing.)
E. The CRISPR/CAS system was discovered in bacteria, and it's natural function is the equivalent of an immune system in bacteria for remembering viral infections and for attacking viral DNA in future infections. (The CRISPR/CAS system provides acquired immunity to bacteria.)
On April 26, 1986, Reactor 4 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in Ukraine exploded, releasing radioactive isotopes into the air. The majority of the isotopes that were released and spreading thousands of miles were of the element iodine. As a class, discuss what endocrine glands would be most affected and how it would become apparent in the nearby population.
The thyroid gland will be mostly affected in this case. The element Iodine is
the major precursor which is involved in the formation of two hormones.
When an individual is exposed to radioactive iodine , it alters the production
of the hormones which leads to series of effects such as:
In the given case, the thyroid gland will be affected the most due to the exposure of the element iodine. For the synthesis of thyroid gland hormone, T3 and T4 iodine is required. As the exposure of the radioactive iodine element is taking place, therefore, it will result in the deterioration of the thyroid gland. Radioactive iodine is generally used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism.
However, in normal individuals, the exposure of the radioactive iodine element results in a decrease in the level of thyroid hormones below the normal level due to the destruction of the thyroid cells. The symptoms seen can be neck tenderness, swollen salivary gland, and loss in body weight.